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1. Harvest grapes

  • when it reaches the ideal level of sugar (brix 20-25) and acidity (pH 3.2-3.5) depending on the winemaker's style.

  • by machine or hands; many uses this gentle method as believing that machine is harsh (will negatively affect the grapes and the vineyard.)

  • will then moved to winery's sorting table to remove out the under-ripe or rotten bits.

2. De-stem & Crush

  • trodding by feet or often crush mechanically; as it is more sanitary and prolongs wine's longevity as they required fewer preservatives.


*Crushed grape juice contains seeds, solids and skins are called must*

Most White or Rosé wines' grapes will be sent to crush & press directly to prevent tannin and colour leach into the wine, however, red is otherwise, to garner colour and enhance flavour.


4. Clarification

  • usually done after the process of fermentation: to remove dead yeast and protein that can affect the clarity, flavour and stability of the wine.

  • often involves racking, filtration and fining.

  1. Racking is transporting wine from the fermentation tank to a new one using gravity leaving behind the "solid" also known as pomace.

  2. Commonly use filter cartridges or filter pad for filtering wines, while fining wines requires fining agent such as bentonite clay, egg white, or gelatin to neutralize complex substances quicker. These methods help to clear the lees aka dead yeast cells.

5. Aging

  • helps to improve wine quality or colour, flavours and aroma over times, often uses barrel, stainless steel or bottle for storage: away from light, heat and air exposure.

  • The Coates’ Law of Maturity principle determine the aging duration: “a wine will remain at its peak or optimal drinking quality for a duration of time that is equal to the time of maturation required to reach its optimal quality.”

6. Bottling

  • takes place after the completion of final polishing filtration, where sulphur dioxide is adjusted to inhibit yeasts, or sometimes, winemakers do blending with other wines to improve or correct the complexity or deficiency of the wine.

  • Standard screw cap or cork will be applied, later send for labelling and storing at 12°C to 16°C with absence of light.

3. Fermentation

  • is a "must" reaction when yeast is added to convert grape sugar into alcohol.

  • starts within 6 to 12 hours when it is exposed to air where wild yeasts reacted. Additional wine yeast, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, will be added for efficient alcoholic fermentation.

  • usually takes from 10 days to a month but some wineries would halt this process to prevent converting all the sugar when making the sweet wines.

This is time-
consuming but
it's worth it!
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